Launch vehicle Volna
Launch site Submarine "Borisoglebsk," stationed in the Barents Sea, Russia
Date/Time 2001-07-20 00:33
Description Separation failure
Cause Inadequate control software
Payload Cosmos 1 (solar sail test capsule)
Desired orbit n/a (suborbital flight)

Cosmos 1 was launched from a Russian nuclear submarine, but remained attached to the third stage of the rocket (a converted intercontinental ballistic missile).

The spacecraft and rocket likely burnt up in the atmosphere upon re-entry or crashed on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, officials said.

The separation command was not issued by the flight software because of the presence of "dynamic variations," which however would not have affected the Cosmos 1 test spacecraft performance or its recovery.

See also:

Launch Failures Chronology